Campbell Biology 10th edition Chapter 22 Flashcards | Easy Notecards
absent-minded; absent-mindedly; absent-mindedness; absolute; absolutely . analyst; analytic; analyze; anarchist; anarchy; anatomical; anatomy; ancestor . bird; birdbrained; birdseed; birth; birth certificate; birth control; birth date; birthday .. compare; compared; comparison; compartment; compartmentalize; compass . chronometric dating(absolute dating) is giving an estimated in actual numbers of Relative dating is based on stratigraphy (study of the sequential layer of seek to reconstruct every possible bit of information for dating, anatomy, behavior. May 24, Find out how to properly refer to the location of things at the front and back of a person as well as above or below a certain point on the body by.
Applied anthropology is simply the practice of applying anthropological theory and or methods from any of the fields of Anthropology to solve human problems. For example, applied anthropology is often used when trying to determine the ancestry of an unearthed Native American burial. Biological anthropology can be used to test the DNA of the body and see if the DNA of the burial has any similarities to living populations.
- Cultural Anthropology/Print version
Medical Anthropology studies illness and healthcare within specific populations in order to form healthcare solutions that are tailored specifically to populations as well as identify unique areas of susceptibility within populations. The study and interpretation of ancient humans or animals, their history, and culture.
This is done through examination of the artifacts and remains that they left behind. An example of this is the study of Egyptian culture through the examination of their grave sites and the pyramids and the tombs in the Valley of Kings.
Through the examination of pyramids and tombs in which these ancient humans lived in, much about human history and Egyptian culture is learned. Archaeology is an important study in improving knowledge about ancient humans, particularly, prehistoric or the long stretch of time before the development of writing. A subfield of Anthropology that studies humanity through the human body as a biological organism, using genetics, evolution, human ancestry, primates, and their ability to adapt.
This field shifted from racial classification when it was discovered that physical traits that had been used to determine race could not predict other traits such as intelligence and morality. Some biological anthropologists work in the fields of primatology, which studies the closest living relative of human beings, the nonhuman primate.
They also work in the field of paleoanthropology, which is the study of fossilized bones and teeth of our earliest ancestors. Biological anthropologists focus heavily on comparing and contrasting the biology of humans to that of our nearest extant relatives, the primates, to discover what distinguishes humans from primates as well as primates from other mammals. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daroPakistan. The study of contemporary human cultures and how these cultures are formed and shape the world around them.
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Cultural anthropologists often conduct research by spending time living in and observing the community they study fieldwork and participant observation in order to increase understanding of its politics, social structures, and religion.
Linguistic anthropologists try to understand the language in relation to the broader cultural, historical, or biological contexts that make it possible. The study of linguistics includes examining phonemesmorphemessyntaxsemanticsand pragmatics. They look at linguistic features of communication, which includes any verbal contact, as well as non-linguistic features, such as, eye contact, the cultural context, and even the recent thoughts of the speaker.
Holism in Anthropology Anthropology is holistic comparative, field-based, and evolutionary. These regions of Anthropology shape one another and become integrated over time. Historically it was seen as "the study of others," meaning foreign cultures, but using the term "others" imposed false thoughts of "civilized versus savagery. Now, anthropologists strive to uncover the mysteries of these foreign cultures and eliminate the prejudice that it first created.
In anthropology holism tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activities. From a holistic perspective, attempts to divide reality into mind and matter isolate and pin down certain aspects of a process that, by very nature, resists isolation and dissection.
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Holism holds great appeal for those who seek a theory of human nature that is rich enough to do justice to its complex subject matter. An easier understanding of holism is to say that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This approach is used to study the thoughts, behaviors, emotional, and spiritual changes we experience as humans.
Anthropologists have the opportunity to use this approach to study the way humans are interested in engaging and developing as a whole person. Culture is the patterns of learned and shared behavior and beliefs of a particular social, ethnic, or age group. It can also be described as the complex whole of collective human beliefs with a structured stage of civilization that can be specific to a nation or time period. Humans, in turn, use culture to adapt and transform the world they live in.
Ashanti flag, note the golden stool This idea of Culture can be seen in the way that we describe the Ashanti, an African tribe located in central Ghana.
The Ashanti live with their families as you might assume but the meaning of how and why they live with whom is an important aspect of Ashanti culture. The Ashanti live in an extended family. The family lives in various homes or huts that are set up around a courtyard.
The head of the household is usually the oldest brother that lives there. He is chosen by the elders. Some heritable traits must increase reproductive success. Individuals pass on most traits that they acquire during their lifetime.
A Condition 1 only C Conditions 1 and 2 D Conditions 2 and 3 C Conditions 1 and 2 15 15 A farmer uses triazine herbicide to control pigweed in his field. For the first few years, the triazine works well and almost all the pigweed dies; but after several years, the farmer sees more and more pigweed. Which of these explanations best explains what happened? A The herbicide company lost its triazine formula and started selling poor-quality triazine.
B Natural selection caused the pigweed to mutate, creating a new triazine-resistant species. C Triazine-resistant pigweed has less-efficient photosynthesis metabolism. D Triazine-resistant weeds were more likely to survive and reproduce. If this hypothesis is correct, what would you expect to observe if a population of these medium ground finches colonizes a nearby island where Tribulus cistoides is the most abundant food for the next years?
Assume that 1 even the survivors of the drought sometimes had difficulty cracking the tough T. A tourist company sets up reliable feeding stations with a variety of bird seeds different types and sizes so that tourists can get a better look at the finches.
Which of these events is now most likely to occur to finch beaks on this island? A evolution of yet larger, deeper beaks over time, until all birds have relatively large, deep beaks B evolution of smaller, pointier beaks over time, until all birds have relatively small, pointy beaks C increased variation in beak size and shape over time D no change in beak size and shape over time C increased variation in beak size and shape over time 18 18 Claytonia virginica is a woodland spring herb with flowers that vary from white to pale pink to bright pink.
Slugs prefer to eat pink-flowering over white-flowering plants due to chemical differences between the twoand plants experiencing severe herbivory are more likely to die. The bees that pollinate this plant also prefer pink to white flowers, so that Claytonia with pink flowers have greater relative fruit set than Claytonia with white flowers.
A researcher observes that the percentage of different flower colors remains stable in the study population from year to year. Given no other information, if the researcher removes all slugs from the study population, what do you expect to happen to the distribution of flower colors in the population over time? A The percentage of pink flowers should increase over time.
B The percentage of white flowers should increase over time.
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C The distribution of flower colors should not change. Laboratory tests You may have laboratory tests to rule out other disorders that cause some symptoms similar to those of Alzheimer's dementia, such as a thyroid disorder or vitamin B deficiency. Brain-imaging tests Alzheimer's dementia results from the progressive loss degeneration of brain cells. This degeneration may show up in a variety of ways in brain scans.
However, these scans alone aren't enough to make a diagnosis. Scans aren't used to diagnose the condition because there is overlap in what doctors consider normal age-related change in the brain and abnormal change.
However, brain imaging can help: Rule out other causes, such as hemorrhages, brain tumors or strokes Distinguish between different types of degenerative brain disease Establish a baseline about the degree of degeneration The brain-imaging technologies most often used are: Magnetic resonance imaging MRI. An MRI uses powerful radio waves and magnets to create a detailed view of your brain.
A CT scan uses X-rays to obtain cross-sectional images of your brain. Positron emission tomography PET. A PET scan uses a radioactive substance known as a tracer to detect substances in the body. There are different types of PET scans. The pattern of metabolism change can distinguish between different types of degenerative brain disease.
PET scans have recently been developed that detect clusters of amyloid proteins plaqueswhich are associated with Alzheimer's dementia, but this type of PET scan is typically used in the research setting. Future of diagnosis Researchers are working on new diagnostic tools that may enable doctors to diagnose Alzheimer's dementia earlier in the course of the disease, when symptoms are very mild or before symptoms even appear.What Is An Example Of Absolute Dating?
One such tool is a PET scan that can detect tau, the other hallmark abnormal protein in Alzheimer's dementia. Scientists are investigating a number of disease markers and diagnostic tests, such as genes, disease-related proteins and imaging procedures, which may accurately and reliably indicate whether you have Alzheimer's dementia and how much the disease has progressed.
However, more research on these tests is necessary. Benefit of an early diagnosis Reluctance to go to the doctor when you or a family member has memory problems is understandable. Some people hide their symptoms, or family members cover for them.