Template 1: Class Learning Profile
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Learning specific tasks appears to alter the specific regions of the brain appropriate to the task.
In humans, for example, brain reorganization has been demonstrated in the language functions of deaf individuals, in rehabilitated stroke patients, and in the visual cortex of people who are blind from birth. These findings suggest that the brain is a dynamic organ, shaped to a great extent by experience and by what a living being does.
Transfer of Learning A major goal of schooling is to prepare students for flexible adaptation to new problems and settings. Many approaches to instruction look equivalent when the only measure of learning is memory for facts that were specifically presented.
Instructional differences become more apparent when evaluated from the perspective of how well the learning transfers to new problems and settings. Transfer can be explored at a variety of levels, including transfer from one set of concepts to another, one school subject to another, one year of school to another, and across school and everyday, nonschool activities.
People must achieve a threshold of initial learning that is sufficient to support transfer. This obvious point is often overlooked and can lead to erroneous conclusions about the effectiveness of various instructional approaches.
It takes time to learn complex subject matter, and assessments of transfer must take into account the degree to which original learning with understanding was accomplished.
Practice and getting familiar with subject matter take time, but most important is how people use their time while Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Such activities are very different from simply reading and rereading a text. Learning with understanding is more likely to promote transfer than simply memorizing information from a text or a lecture. Many classroom activities stress the importance of memorization over learning with understanding.
Many, as well, focus on facts and details rather than larger themes of causes and consequences of events. The shortfalls of these approaches are not apparent if the only test of learning involves tests of memory, but when the transfer of learning is measured, the advantages of learning with understanding are likely to be revealed. Knowledge that is taught in a variety of contexts is more likely to support flexible transfer than knowledge that is taught in a single context.
When material is taught in multiple contexts, people are more likely to extract the relevant features of the concepts and develop a more flexible representation of knowledge that can be used more generally.
Students develop flexible understanding of when, where, why, and how to use their knowledge to solve new problems if they learn how to extract underlying themes and principles from their learning exercises. Understanding how and when to put knowledge to use—known as conditions of applicability—is an important characteristic of expertise.
Learning in multiple contexts most likely affects this aspect of transfer. Transfer of learning is an active process. An alternative assessment approach is to consider how learning affects subsequent learning, such as increased speed of learning in a new domain. All learning involves transfer from previous experiences. Even initial learning involves transfer that is based on previous experiences and prior knowledge.
Transfer is not simply something that may or may not appear after initial learning has occurred. For example, knowledge relevant to a particular task may not automatically be activated by learners and may not serve as a source of positive transfer for learning new information. Sometimes the knowledge that people bring to a new situation impedes subsequent learning because it guides thinking in wrong directions.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: In these kinds of situations, teachers must help students change their original conceptions rather than simply use the misconceptions as a basis for further understanding or leaving new material unconnected to current understanding.
Competent and Expert Performance Cognitive science research has helped us understand how learners develop a knowledge base as they learn. An individual moves from being a novice in a subject area toward developing competency in that area through a series of learning processes.
An understanding of the structure of knowledge provides guidelines for ways to assist learners acquire a knowledge base effectively and efficiently.
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Eight factors affect the development of expertise and competent performance: Relevant knowledge helps people organize information in ways that support their abilities to remember.
Learners do not always relate the knowledge they possess to new tasks, despite its potential relevance. Different representations of the same problem can make it easy, difficult, or impossible to solve.
The sophisticated problem representations of experts are the result of well-organized knowledge structures. Experts know the conditions of applicability of their knowledge, and they are able to access the relevant knowledge with considerable ease.
Different domains of knowledge, such as science, mathematics, and history, have different organizing properties. Competent learners and problem solvers monitor and regulate their own processing and change their strategies as necessary.
Like the work of experts, everyday competencies are supported by sets of tools and social norms that allow people to perform tasks in specific contexts that they often cannot perform elsewhere. Conclusions Everyone has understanding, resources, and interests on which to build. Learning a topic does not begin from knowing nothing to learning that is based on entirely new information. This view of the interactions of learners with one another and with teachers derives from generalizations about learning mechanisms and the conditions that promote understanding.
It begins with the obvious: The most effective learning occurs when learners transport what they have learned to various and diverse new situations. This view of learning also includes the not so obvious: Effective comprehension and thinking require a coherent understanding of the organizing principles in any subject matter; understanding the essential features of the problems of various school subjects will lead to better reasoning and problem solving; early competencies are foundational to later complex learning; self-regulatory processes enable self-monitoring and control of learning processes by learners themselves.
Transfer and wide application of learning are most likely to occur when learners achieve an organized and coherent understanding of the material; when the situations for transfer share the structure of the original Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Learning and understanding can be facilitated in learners by emphasizing organized, coherent bodies of knowledge in which specific facts and details are embeddedby helping learners learn how to transfer their learning, and by helping them use what they learn.
In-depth understanding requires detailed knowledge of the facts within a domain. The key attribute of expertise is a detailed and organized understanding of the important facts within a specific domain.
Education needs to provide children with sufficient mastery of the details of particular subject matters so that they have a foundation for further exploration within those domains.
Expertise can be promoted in learners. The predominant indicator of expert status is the amount of time spent learning and working in a subject area to gain mastery of the content. Secondarily, the more one knows about a subject, the easier it is to learn additional knowledge.
The major ideas that have transformed understanding of learning also have implications for teaching. In the interim period, the Learner Profile may be stored in a plastic sleeve display file pocket plastic file for durability.
It is recommended that the pages of the Learner Profile document be stored in separate plastic sleeves. Everywhere in the Learner Profile document where stated " envelope must be used to insert documents", e. Additional copies of each page of the Learner Profile document may be added when required. Foreducators should keep a Learner Profile for each learner in Grade 1 and in Grade 2.
Circular 11 of The Learner Profile guidelines for Grade 1 and Grade 2 learners.
The same Learner Profile will be used throughout the Foundation Phase. The Learner Profile will be further developed for other phases as Curriculum is phased in. The implementation of the Learner Profile document in will be seen as a trial period and all the experience gained in the process will help to inform further development.
The Learner Profiles in the Foundation Phase will be mandatory in the year Learner Support Recording Support needed by the learner experiencing learning barriers should be identified as early as the first term of the school year in the particular grade and intervention and support should be planned and undertaken as soon as possible and monitored closely. A learner can only be retained once in Foundation Phase and documented proof to motivate why the learner was or is retained and the nature of support plan that was and would be given should also be stated.
Samples of the learner's work Selected examples from each of the three Learning Programmes in the Foundation Phase, viz. These selected sample examples from the portfolio on learner's work should give an indication of whether the learner is able or not yet able to integrate knowledge, concept, values, attitudes and skills.All About Me Book For Preschool and Kindergarten
Portfolios of learners' work are built up over a period of time and retained so that they are visible proof of the development and improvement of a learner's achievement. Remember, educators must have two formal records and one formal report on the learner's progress per term. These records and reports should be accompanied by the selected samples from the portfolio.
As the learner progresses from one grade or phase to the next, old samples that are no longer relevant not currently evidence of higher achievement level of the learner's performance may be discarded or given to learners and parents. At the end of the year the Learner Profile document should be handed over to the appropriate grade educator of the learner in the following year.
The Learner Profiles will assist the subsequent educators with their planning of the teaching and learning process. It will also help educators to respond to the learner's need and areas of development. Educators will not have to rely on general remarks given in the report cards but will be provided with detailed information about the progress of the learners. From one school to the next In the event of a learner's transfer to another school, for sound administration procedures the Learner Profile must be made available by the Principal of the school at which the learner was previously enrolled, once the transfer card has also been issued, to the Principal of the school to which the learner moves.
Completion of each section in the Learner Profile document Guidelines concerning the completion of each section of the Learner Profile document follow below.
Copy the Surname and Names of the learner from the Birth Certificate in a clear and legible print. Information may be obtained directly from the parents or guardian during admission or registration.
All copies of medical or other reports are indexed in the space provided and inserted in the appropriate sleeve or envelope at the back of the form. The admission number is the same as on page 1 see Personal Information. Reasons for departure should be briefly stated, e. Additional copies of this page may be added, if required. An extra row on each Grade is provided for when the learner has been retained.
Reasons for absence should be briefly stated.