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The (E)neolithic Settlement Crkvine at Stubline, Serbia | Adam Crnobrnja -

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Although this difference might also be ascribed to the small investigated area and actually a random sample of investigated houses at Divostin it should be mentioned that only these two settlements of all the above mentioned belong to the type of large flat settlements. Seven such structures out of 23 are concentrated in small area in the east zone of the settlement, while other are distributed almost evenly along the central settlement axis running in east-west direction.

Population Considering that many authors base their estimation of number of inhabitants in Neolithic settlements and distinct house- holds on the inside living area34 I would like to underline the fact that in both investigated houses at Crkvine-Stubline remains have been encountered, which suggest the existence of an upper storey most probably only above one section of the house Different possibilities of perception of the same space - possible models of primary organization of Crkvine-Stubline Late Neolithic settlement after Crnobrnja b, fig.

The estimated number of inhabitants who could have lived in the settlement at Crkvine-Stubline if all recorded houses were contemporary varies from to I myself am inclined to the smaller number. Taking into account an estimation that 5—7 inhabitants40 lived in each house in the Late Neolithic communities, and that this settlement could have had houses the most41, hence it could be assumed that between and inhabitants at most could have lived there at one moment in time.

Interior Organization of Settlement Most of the recorded houses were situated above Only 22 out of recorded structures are above this isohypse, and all these houses are located in the southern part of the settlement Fig. The E neolithic Settlement Crkvine at Stubline, Serbia The regularities in the disposition of houses could be studied in many ways, particularly considering the fact that we still do not know which house dates from which period. Thus we could consider the interior organization of our settlement at least in three different ways: The question could be asked whether the reason for such a building system could be sought in the most rational oc- cupation of space by linear arrangement47, or the area has been purposely planned already in the initial phase of es- tablishing large settlements?

Taking into account the small distance between the houses and also the need for storage and disposal areas as well as the passages between them Fig. However, it is interesting that the density of structures was different in the east and west section of the settlement. The distance between given rows of houses is somewhat larger in the east settlement section than in the west while in the east more scattered section of settlement the houses are bigger than in the west section.

As first explanation for such a phenomenon a horizontal stratigraphy could be as- sumed, i. I think that it is not the case here, because in addition to the already mentioned results, which indicate that it was highly probable that most of the recorded houses were contemporary at least during a short interval, there are other facts, which also suggest a similar conclusion: If all or at least most of the houses recorded by geomagnetic mapping existed simultaneously at one time interval it could be assumed that the settlement expanded from the southeast toward the northwest.

Building of new structures next to already existing house groups implied the assent of inhabitants of already built houses. Such concession would mean reducing of living space and comfort of already present population and that is something not accepted easily in any pe- riod. Therefore, it seems to me rather probable that houses were most densely built just in the period when the expansion of the settlement was reaching its physical limit at that end was also already the mentioned depression in the terrain resulting in a smaller floor area of houses in that part of the settlement where a lack of building lots is conspicuous.

The basic settlement texture consists of rows of houses and their discrete clustering in blocks around empty areas squaresindicating the possible existence of 42 See footnote 2—9. View of the Late Neolithic village Crkvine-Stubline from southwest reconstruction.

The level of construction and house disposition suggests that the entire settlement is a single entity, not only from the physical as- pect but also regarding the social organization, implying the existence of a strong group identity. Many authors suggest certain territorial organization or hierarchical relations between distinct settlements in the Late Neolithic in the Balkans and neighboring regions Despite the possibility that the settlement at Crkvine-Stubline was close to or contemporary with the cultures of Advanced Early Eneolithic, I would like to remind once more of its almost planned organization.

The disappearance of such settlements and social organization leading to their establishing represent a clear dividing point between two epochs, and within a very large area. In northwestern Serbia, i. On this occasion I would like to mention the works of Parkinson where he studies the phenomenon of disintegra- tion of large Late Neolithic settlements in the Great Hungarian Plain and the transformation of social organization 50 Crnobrnja What could the inhabitants see inside the settlement?

A possible view inside the Crkvine-Stubline settlement reconstruction. Although in Serbia we still do not have at our disposal a comparable quantity of data as Parkinson had, a similar process could be assumed also in the area studied for this work. I think that his question should be preceded by others as well: Why did the commenced process of horizontal and vertical stratification within the Late Neolithic communities not continue? Why substituted people that life in almost proto-urban settlements by a life in small settlements?

I am asking the first question because I think that the beginning of such stratification could be noticed in settlements on the very edge of Pannonian basin, at Gomolava and at Crkvine-Stubline. When the settlement at Crkvine-Stubline is concerned the ex- istence of vertical and horizontal social stratification is indicated by a spatial settlement organization and a probable way of distribution of resources around it66, as well as the very interesting find of distinct composition consisting of 43 figurines The second question I am asking seems perhaps unnecessary, considering the frequent discussions of disintegrating processes at the transition from Late Neolithic to Early Eneolithic.

Nevertheless, I ask myself that question frequently not to try to get to the heart of mechanism of global changes in that time, but in order to comprehend at least partially the changes experienced by common people in that period.

Crnobrnja comprehend the mentioned processes social, economic, climatic, organizational, technological, etc. The path toward examining just one settlement from any period and the needs of people living in that settlement, runs through wider and wider multidisciplinary approaches. Common people living in the settlement and being the- main participants in all events are almost never aware of such complexity Fig.

I will quote here one simple but interesting opinion: When I think about that period in such simple and seemingly prosaic way, the main questions I ask myself con- cern personal experience of the participants.

Why someone wanted to abandon the life in a well-organized, densely populated and defended settlement with arable land and water in abundance in the immediate vicinity? Whether the descendants of people deserting these settlements were happier and feeling more secure in small settlements scat- tered throughout the fringes of marshes and on desolate hills, frequently surrounded only by their extended family?

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Did they remember the places inhabited by their ancestors? Does it mean that great changes in social organiza- tion resulted in disappearance or modification of beliefs and customs? Searching for any answers about great changes happening in northwestern Serbia in the middle of 5th millennium BC imply also great changes in the approach of archaeological investigations in Serbia.

Investigations in Serbia have generally been limited to larger or smaller excavations of certain sites or basic field survey.

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There were no regional or microregional investigations in order to acquire a more complete picture about organization of life in distinct periods. An essential shift in that field, especially for the region and time I discuss in this work, is the project of B.

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The shortage of high-quality data about Late Neolithic — Early Eneo- lithic in the wider surroundings of settlement at the site Crkvine-Stubline emerged as crucial limiting factor, in com- prehending the role this settlement had in a wider community and the reason for its appearance and disappearance.

This project will start in and in the course of its realization we will try to establish a high- quality basis for more detailed investigations in the decades to come. Strugar, Neolitski stratum na lokalitetu kormadin u Jakovu — is- kopavanja Hardy, Does enclosure make a difference?

A view from the Bal- kans. Venclova edsEnclosing the past: Lazarovici, Architectura neoliticului si epocii cuprului din Romania I. Zbornik radova sa Ralph, Geomagnetic Surveys at Divostin.

Stylistic variability and social boundary maintenance during the transition to the Copper Age on the Great Hungarian Plain. A Prehistoric Example from the Carpathian Basin. However, no remains of an actual church have been found so far. It is believed that the settlement wasn't formed by several families and then spontaneously settled by more and more migrants, but that it was rather settled by a large number of people at once.

The older settlement dates from BC. It occupies the eastern plateau, with some houses, which were protected by the deeply dug double trenches, which presumably offered protection from numerous hazards: Some 50 years after it was founded, the settlement spread on the western side of the plateau where further 80 houses were built in time. Though today much is known about the culture itself, the abrupt disappearance remains an enigma.

Out of various theories, none is widely accepted. After the museum was closed inseveral hundred artifacts were stored in the Belgrade City Museum. However, the archaeological surveys and exploration stopped in Geomagnetic mapping and geo-electrical scanning were conducted from December to The mapping produced the pattern of almost entire settlement on an area of Systematic archaeological exploration has continued since The northern section could not be mapped because of the vegetation and current village road.

This was later narrowed to BC — BC. The houses were built in rows, forming something of a street-like map. Some of the houses were built around smaller open areas, most likely a communal, public spaces. The houses are mostly rectangular, built from the mud-covered wooden construction. It is estimated that such a house, without major restorations, could last from 40 to years. The smallest houses are laid in opposite direction and it is believed that they were not used for dwelling being probably public storages, though the exact use is still unknown.

Calculating that 5 to 7 people lived in one house, the population might be from 1, to 1, If all houses were contemporary, and given the fact that it is not known how many houses had upper floors, some estimates go up to 2, 3, or 4, people.

Crkvine (Stubline) - Wikipedia

It has been suggested that these pits develop as the settlers take materials needed for the construction of the village.

They were burning their houses whether to build another one on its place, to move on another location or simply to clear the space. They include the ritual burning, an accidental, local fire or an enemy attack. In the shallow and narrow foundation trenches, the wooden stakes were driven inside. They were then covered with the interwoven wattle and thin branches creating the skeleton of the house which was then covered with the mixture of clay, earth and chaff.

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The roofs were most likely a gable ones. The floors were made from the wooden rolls which were covered with the similar mixture as the walls. Sometimes the fragmented pottery was added to the floor mix. They had some kind of furniture and everyday, clay-made "apparatuses" of the day. They included the five-legged tables, small vessels for keeping the grains, pithoi and large mortars and pestles.

In some of the houses the light wooden shelves, which fell of the walls, were discovered. The houses had furnaces and fireplaces, which were the central points of the household life. Each had two rooms, ovens for food preparation and heating, storage sections and, beside previously listed objects, had an altar, grinding stones, cooking dishes and bucraniums[2] the ox -shaped architectural ornaments made from unbaked earth.

Because of the preserved, identical plank impressions, either in collapsed walls or in situand the absence of daub fragments with wattle impressions, it was concluded that the house was built differently.