ROT13 - Wikipedia
This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit, the Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called Proto-Canaanite before ca. The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram and this script is the parent script of all western alphabets 3. Mathematics — Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change.
There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures.
Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist.
The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word.
Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise.
Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences.
Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record.
Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between and BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs.
He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain.
These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war.
Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
ROT47 Encode/Decode, ROT47 Character Substitution Cipher
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes.
Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC.
Caesars father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16 5. They refer to themselves as Vainakhs or Nokhchiy pronounced, singular Nokhchi, Chechen and Ingush peoples are collectively known as the Vainakh. The majority of Chechens today live in the Chechen Republic, a subdivision of the Russian Federation, Chechen society has traditionally been egalitarian and organized around many autonomous local clans, called teips.
The term Chechen first occurs in Arabic sources from the 8th century, according to popular tradition, the Russian term Chechen comes from the name of the village of Chechen-Aul. The word Chechen, however, occurs in Russian sources as early asthe Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, Russian Federation. There are also significant Chechen populations in other subdivisions of Russia, outside Russia, countries with significant diaspora populations are Kazakhstan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Arab states and the Stalinist deportation in the case of Kazakhstan.
Tens of thousands of Chechen refugees settled in the European Union and elsewhere as the result of the recent Chechen Wars, the Chechens are one of the Vainakh peoples, who have lived in the highlands of the North Caucasus region since prehistory. In the Middle Ages, the lowland of Chechnya was dominated by the Khazars, local culture was also subject to Byzantine and Georgian influence and some Chechens converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Gradually, Islam prevailed, although the Chechens own pagan religion was strong until the 19th century.
Society was organised along feudal lines, Chechnya was devastated by the Mongol invasions of the 13th century and those of Tamerlane in the 14th. The Vainakh bear the distinction of being one of the few peoples to successfully resist the Mongols and these events were key in the shaping of the Chechen nationhood and their martial-oriented and clan-based society. The Caucasus was also a major competing area for two neighbouring empires, the Ottoman and Persian Empires. The Chechens, however, never really fell under the rule of either empire, as Russia expanded slowly southwards as early as the 16th century, clashes between Chechens and the Russians became more frequent, and it became three empires competing for the region.
Notable in Chechen history, this particular Russo-Persian War marked the first military encounter between Imperial Russia and the Vainakh, sheikh Mansur led a major Chechen resistance movement in the late 18th century.
Much of the campaign was led by General Yermolov who particularly disliked the Chechens, describing them as a bold, angered by Chechen raids, Yermolov resorted to a brutal policy of scorched earth and deportations, he also founded the fort of Grozny in Chechen resistance to Russian rule reached its peak under the leadership of the Dagestani leader Imam Shamil, the Chechens were finally defeated in after a bloody war that lasted for decades, during which they lost most of their entire population.
In the aftermath, large numbers of refugees also emigrated or were deported to the Ottoman Empire. At least one-quarter—and perhaps half—of the entire Chechen population perished in the process, Chechen attempts to regain independence in the s after the fall of the Soviet Union have led to the first and the second war with the new Russian state, starting in 6.
Computer program — A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function, and typically executes the programs instructions in a processing unit. A computer program is written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute.
Alternatively, a program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter.
ROT47 Character Substitution Cipher
A part of a program that performs a well-defined task is known as an algorithm. A collection of programs, libraries and related data are referred to as software. Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as software or system software.
The earliest programmable machines preceded the invention of the digital computer, inJoseph-Marie Jacquard devised a loom that would weave a pattern by following a series of perforated cards. Patterns could be weaved and repeated by arranging the cards, inCharles Babbage was inspired by Jacquards loom to attempt to build the Analytical Engine.
The names of the components of the device were borrowed from the textile industry. In the textile industry, yarn was brought from the store to be milled, the device would have had a store—memory to hold 1, numbers of 40 decimal digits each. Numbers from the store would then have then transferred to the mill. It was programmed using two sets of perforated cards—one to direct the operation and the other for the input variables, however, after more than 17, pounds of the British governments money, the thousands of cogged wheels and gears never fully worked together.
During a nine-month period in —43, Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea, the memoir covered the Analytical Engine. The translation contained Note G which completely detailed a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers using the Analytical Engine and this note is recognized by some historians as the worlds first written computer program.
The machine can move the back and forth, changing its contents as it performs an algorithm 7. Computer programming — Computer programming is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs. Source code is written in one or more programming languages, the purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate performing a specific task or solving a given problem.
Web-based ROT13/ROT47 encoder/decoder | By the Campfire with Stuart
The process of programming thus often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the domain, specialized algorithms. Related tasks include testing, debugging, and maintaining the code, implementation of the build system.
Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices, within software engineering, programming is regarded as one phase in a software development process. There is a debate on the extent to which the writing of programs is an art form. In general, good programming is considered to be the application of all three, with the goal of producing an efficient and evolvable software solution. Because the discipline covers many areas, which may or may not include critical applications, in most cases, the discipline is self-governed by the entities which require the programming, and sometimes very strict environments are defined.
Another ongoing debate is the extent to which the language used in writing computer programs affects the form that the final program takes. Different language patterns yield different patterns of thought and this idea challenges the possibility of representing the world perfectly with language because it acknowledges that the mechanisms of any language condition the thoughts of its speaker community.
In the s Herman Hollerith invented the concept of storing data in machine-readable form, however, with the concept of the stored-program computers introduced inboth programs and data were stored and manipulated in the same way in computer memory. Machine code was the language of early programs, written in the set of the particular machine. Assembly languages were developed that let the programmer specify instruction in a text format, with abbreviations for each operation code.
However, because a language is little more than a different notation for a machine language. High-level languages allow the programmer to write programs in terms that are more abstract and they harness the power of computers to make programming easier by allowing programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula directly. Programs were mostly still entered using punched cards or paper tape, see computer programming in the punch card era.
By the late s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough that programs could be created by typing directly into the computers, text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more easily than with punched cards. Whatever the approach to development may be, the program must satisfy some fundamental properties 8.
Cryptanalysis — Cryptanalysis is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems. Cryptanalysis is used to breach cryptographic security systems and gain access to the contents of encrypted messages, methods for breaking modern cryptosystems often involve solving carefully constructed problems in pure mathematics, the best-known being integer factorization.
Given some encrypted data, the goal of the cryptanalyst is to gain as much information as possible about the original, attacks can be classified based on what type of information the attacker has available.
Ciphertext-only, the cryptanalyst has access only to a collection of ciphertexts or codetexts, known-plaintext, the attacker has a set of ciphertexts to which he knows the corresponding plaintext. Chosen-plaintext, the attacker can obtain the corresponding to an arbitrary set of plaintexts of his own choosing. Adaptive chosen-plaintext, like an attack, except the attacker can choose subsequent plaintexts based on information learned from previous encryptions.
Related-key attack, Like a chosen-plaintext attack, except the attacker can obtain ciphertexts encrypted under two different keys, the keys are unknown, but the relationship between them is known, for example, two keys that differ in the one bit.
Attacks can also be characterised by the resources they require and those resources include, Time — the number of computation steps which must be performed.
Memory — the amount of required to perform the attack. Data — the quantity and type of plaintexts and ciphertexts required for a particular approach and its sometimes difficult to predict these quantities precisely, especially when the attack isnt practical to actually implement for testing.
But academic cryptanalysts tend to provide at least the estimated order of magnitude of their attacks difficulty, saying, for example, the results of cryptanalysis can also vary in usefulness.
The transformation can be done using a lookup tablesuch as the following: How can you tell an extrovert from an introvert at NSA? Transformed into ROT13 form, the text would become: Ubj pna lbh gryy na rkgebireg sebz na vagebireg ng AFN?
A second application of ROT13 would restore the original. Previous attempts to categorize offensive jokes by putting them in different newsgroups had failed — site managers did not want to be seen as condoning such postings by creating a special place for them. ROT13 was a convenient solution because of its simplicity. Since it replaces alphabet letters with other letters, ROT13 did not cause problems for newsgroup software which sometimes had problems with unusual kinds of characters.
ROT was chosen over ROT-N for other values of N between 1 and 25 because 13 is the only shift value which ensures that encoding and decoding are equivalent. Note that this is true only for languages which have 26 letters in their alphabets eg, not Polish which has more, nor Hawaiian which has fewer; as it happens, English has 26 which is likely why ROT and not, say, ROT, became standard.